MRI in addition to CT in patients scheduled for local therapy of colorectal liver metastases (CAMINO): an international, multicentre, prospective, diagnostic accuracy trial

Author(s): Burak Görgec, MD1,2,3; Ingrid S Hansen, MD4,5,6; Gunter Kemmerich, MD7; Trygve Syversveen, MD7; Prof Mohammed Abu Hilal, MD8; Eric J T Belt, MD9; Koop Bosscha, MD10; Mark C Burgmans, MD11; Vincent C Cappendijk, MD12; Mathieu D’Hondt, MD13; Prof Bjørn Edwin, MD4,5,6; Arian R van Erkel, MD11; Hugo A J Gielkens, MD14; Dirk J Grünhagen, MD16,17; Paul D Gobardhan, MD18; Henk H Hartgrink, MD19; Karin Horsthuis, MD20; Elisabeth G Klompenhouwer, MD21; Niels F M Kok, MD22; Peter A M Kint, MD23; Koert Kuhlmann, MD22; Wouter K G Leclercq, MD24; Daan J Lips, MD25; Bart Lutin, MD26; Monique Maas, MD21; Hendrik A Marsman, MD27; Prof Martijn Meijerink, MD3,20; Yannick Meyer, MD16,17; Mario Morone, MD28; Jan Peringa, MD29; Jasper P Sijberden, MD1,2,3; Prof Otto M van Delden, MD2,3; Janneke E van den Bergh, MD3,20; Inge J S Vanhooymissen, MD20; Maarten Vermaas, MD30; François E J A Willemssen, MD31; Prof Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, PhD32,33; Prof Patrick M Bossuyt, PhD32; Rutger-Jan Swijnenburg, MD1,3,34; Åsmund A Fretland, MD4,5; Prof Cornelis Verhoef, MD16,17; Prof Marc G Besselink, MD1,3; Prof Jaap Stoker, MD2,3
Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(23)00572-7
Anjan J Patel MD

Dr. Anjan Patel's Thoughts

This is a nice, practical study showing that when considering liver directed therapy, options in metastatic CRC, CT’s alone are insufficient and contrasted MRI can be helpful.  More than 30% of patients had care that was impacted using MRI prior to any therapeutic decisions.

BACKGROUND

Guidelines are inconclusive on whether contrast-enhanced MRI using gadoxetic acid and diffusion-weighted imaging should be added routinely to CT in the investigation of patients with colorectal liver metastases who are scheduled for curative liver resection or thermal ablation, or both. Although contrast-enhanced MRI is reportedly superior than contrast-enhanced CT in the detection and characterisation of colorectal liver metastases, its effect on clinical patient management is unknown. We aimed to assess the clinical effect of an additional liver contrast-enhanced MRI on local treatment plan in patients with colorectal liver metastases amenable to local treatment, based on contrast-enhanced CT.

METHODS

We did an international, multicentre, prospective, incremental diagnostic accuracy trial in 14 liver surgery centres in the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, and Italy. Participants were aged 18 years or older with histological proof of colorectal cancer, a WHO performance status score of 0–4, and primary or recurrent colorectal liver metastases, who were scheduled for local therapy based on contrast-enhanced CT. All patients had contrast-enhanced CT and liver contrast-enhanced MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging and gadoxetic acid as a contrast agent before undergoing local therapy. The primary outcome was change in the local clinical treatment plan (decided by the individual clinics) on the basis of liver contrast-enhanced MRI findings, analysed in the intention-to-image population. The minimal clinically important difference in the proportion of patients who would have change in their local treatment plan due to an additional liver contrast-enhanced MRI was 10%. This study is closed and registered in the Netherlands Trial Register, NL8039.

FINDINGS

Between Dec 17, 2019, and July 31, 2021, 325 patients with colorectal liver metastases were assessed for eligibility. 298 patients were enrolled and included in the intention-to-treat population, including 177 males (59%) and 121 females (41%) with planned local therapy based on contrast-enhanced CT. A change in the local treatment plan based on liver contrast-enhanced MRI findings was observed in 92 (31%; 95% CI 26–36) of 298 patients. Changes were made for 40 patients (13%) requiring more extensive local therapy, 11 patients (4%) requiring less extensive local therapy, and 34 patients (11%) in whom the indication for curative-intent local therapy was revoked, including 26 patients (9%) with too extensive disease and eight patients (3%) with benign lesions on liver contrast-enhanced MRI (confirmed by a median follow-up of 21·0 months [IQR 17·5–24·0]).

INTERPRETATION

Liver contrast-enhanced MRI should be considered in all patients scheduled for local treatment for colorectal liver metastases on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT imaging.

FUNDING

The Dutch Cancer Society and Bayer AG – Pharmaceuticals.

Author Affiliations

1Department of Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 2Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 3Cancer Centre Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 4Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 5The Intervention Centre, Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 6Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 8Department of Surgery, Poliambulanza Foundation Hospital, Brescia, Italy; 9Department of Surgery, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, Netherlands; 10Department of Surgery, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands; 11Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands; 12Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands; 13Department of Digestive and Hepatobiliary/Pancreatic Surgery, Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk, Belgium; 14Department of Radiology, Medical Spectrum Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; 16Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands; 17Erasmus Medical Centre Cancer Institute, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands; 18Department of Surgery, Amphia Hospital, Breda, Netherlands; 19Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands; 20Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 21Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 22Department of Surgery, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 23Department of Radiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, Netherlands; 24Department of Surgery, Máxima Medical Centre, Veldhoven, Netherlands; 25Department of Surgery, Medical Spectrum Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; 26Department of Radiology, Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk, Belgium; 27Department of Surgery, OLVG, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 28Department of Radiology, Poliambulanza Foundation Hospital, Brescia, Italy; 29Department of Radiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 30Department of Surgery, IJsselland Hospital, Capelle aan den IJssel, Netherlands; 31Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands; 32Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 33Amsterdam Public Health, Methodology, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 34Department of Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands

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