Daratumumab, Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone With Minimal Residual Disease Response-Adapted Therapy in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma
The MASTER trial combined daratumumab, carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (Dara-KRd) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), using minimal residual disease (MRD) by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to inform the use and duration of Dara-KRd post-autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) and treatment cessation in patients with two consecutive MRD-negative assessments.
This multicenter, single-arm, phase II trial enrolled patients with NDMM with planed enrichment for high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (HRCAs). Patients received Dara-KRd induction, AHCT, and Dara-KRd consolidation, according to MRD status. MRD was evaluated by NGS at the end of induction, post-AHCT, and every four cycles (maximum of eight cycles) of consolidation. Primary end point was achievement of MRD negativity (< 10–5). Patients with two consecutive MRD-negative assessments entered treatment-free MRD surveillance.
Among 123 participants, 43% had none, 37% had 1, and 20% had 2+ HRCA. Median age was 60 years (range, 36-79 years), and 96% had MRD trackable by NGS. Median follow-up was 25.1 months. Overall, 80% of patients reached MRD negativity (78%, 82%, and 79% for patients with 0, 1, and 2+ HRCA, respectively), 66% reached MRD < 10–6, and 71% reached two consecutive MRD-negative assessments during therapy, entering treatment-free surveillance. Two-year progression-free survival was 87% (91%, 97%, and 58% for patients with 0, 1, and 2+ HRCA, respectively). Cumulative incidence of MRD resurgence or progression 12 months after cessation of therapy was 4%, 0%, and 27% for patients with 0, 1, or 2+ HRCA, respectively. Most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (6%) and venous thromboembolism (3%).
Dara-KRd, AHCT, and MRD response-adapted consolidation leads to high rate of MRD negativity in NDMM. For patients with 0 or 1 HRCA, this strategy creates the opportunity of MRD surveillance as an alternative to indefinite maintenance.