Phase II Trial of Cabozantinib Plus Nivolumab in Patients With Non–Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Genomic Correlates￼
The combination of cabozantinib/nivolumab remains a powerful combination in the RCC space. This article brings together data on histology and genomics to predict response in NCC-RCC with improved efficacy in tumors expressing NF2 and FH, and decreased activity in chromophobic histology. The role and utilization of data continue to evolve and become prevalent in day-to-day practice.
To assess the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib plus nivolumab in a phase II trial in patients with non–clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients had advanced non–clear-cell renal carcinoma who underwent 0-1 prior systemic therapies excluding prior immune checkpoint inhibitors. Patients received cabozantinib 40 mg once daily plus nivolumab 240 mg once every 2 weeks or 480 mg once every 4 weeks. Cohort 1 enrolled patients with papillary, unclassified, or translocation-associated RCC; cohort 2 enrolled patients with chromophobe RCC. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST 1.1; secondary end points included progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Next-generation sequencing results were correlated with response.
A total of 47 patients were treated with a median follow-up of 13.1 months. Objective response rate for cohort 1 (n = 40) was 47.5% (95% CI, 31.5 to 63.9), with median progression-free survival of 12.5 months (95% CI, 6.3 to 16.4) and median overall survival of 28 months (95% CI, 16.3 to not evaluable). In cohort 2 (n = 7), no responses were observed; one patient had stable disease > 1 year. Grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events were observed in 32% treated patients. Cabozantinib and nivolumab were discontinued because of toxicity in 13% and 17% of patients, respectively. Common mutations included NF2 and FH in cohort 1 and TP53 and PTEN in cohort 2. Objective responses were seen in 10/12 patients with either NF2 or FH mutations.
Cabozantinib plus nivolumab showed promising efficacy in most non–clear-cell RCC variants tested in this trial, particularly those with prominent papillary features, whereas treatment effects were limited in chromophobe RCC. Genomic findings in non–clear-cell RCC variants warrant further study as predictors of response.