The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer continues to be debated. The presence of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) after surgery predicts very poor recurrence-free survival, whereas its absence predicts a low risk of recurrence. The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for ctDNA-positive patients is not well understood.
Adjuvant Therapy for Stage II Colon Cancer: ASCO Guideline Update
ASCO convened an Expert Panel to conduct a systematic review of relevant studies and develop recommendations for clinical practice.
Twenty-one observational studies and six randomized controlled trials met the systematic review inclusion criteria.
Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) is not routinely recommended for patients with stage II colon cancer who are not in a high-risk subgroup. Patients with T4 tumors are at higher risk of recurrence and should be offered ACT, whereas patients with other high-risk factors, including sampling of fewer than 12 lymph nodes in the surgical specimen, perineural or lymphatic invasion, poorly or undifferentiated tumor grade, intestinal obstruction, tumor perforation, or grade BD3 tumor budding, may be offered ACT. The addition of oxaliplatin to fluoropyrimidine-based ACT is not routinely recommended, but may be offered as a result of shared decision making. Patients with mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability tumors should not be routinely offered ACT; if the combination of mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability and high-risk factors results in a decision to offer ACT, oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy is recommended. Duration of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy is also addressed, with recommendations for 3 or 6 months of treatment with capecitabine and oxaliplatin or fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin, with decision making informed by key evidence of 5-year disease-free survival in each treatment subgroup and the rate of adverse events, including peripheral neuropathy
Author Affiliations1University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; 2American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA; 3UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA; 4Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; 5University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; 6BC Cancer, Vancouver, Canada; 7Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA; 8Edward Elmhurst Healthcare, Naperville, IL; 9Arlington, VA; 10University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO; 11Penn Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; 12Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA; 13Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, Mexico; 14University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; 15Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
Final Analysis of 3 Versus 6 Months of Adjuvant Oxaliplatin and Fluoropyrimidine-Based Therapy in Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer: The Randomized Phase III ACHIEVE Trial
The phase III ACHIEVE trial conducted in Japan was one of six prospective studies included in the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Therapy collaboration, which explored whether 3 months of adjuvant fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) therapy would be noninferior to 6 months of treatment in patients with curatively resected stage III colon cancer.
Panitumumab Plus Fluorouracil and Folinic Acid Versus Fluorouracil and Folinic Acid Alone as Maintenance Therapy in RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The Randomized PANAMA Trial (AIO KRK 0212)
The randomized PANAMA trial investigated the efficacy of panitumumab (Pmab) when added to maintenance therapy with fluorouracil and folinic acid (FU/FA) in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.